Paniek in de Polder. Polytiek in tijden van populisme

Paniek in de Polder. Polytiek in tijden van populisme

Jos de Mul. Paniek in de Polder. Polytiek in tijden van populisme. Rotterdam: Lemniscaat, februari 2017. Uitgebreide en geactualiseerde editie met twee extra hoofdstukken en…

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Kunstmatig van nature. Onderweg naar Homo sapiens 3.0

Kunstmatig van nature. Onderweg naar Homo sapiens 3.0

Jos de Mul, Kunstmatig van nature. Onderweg naar Homo sapiens 3.0. Essay Maand van de Filosofie. Rotterdam: Lemiscaat, 2014.1ste druk: 2014; 2de druk: 2016.  In…

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Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology

Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology

Jos de Mul. Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology. State University of New York (SUNY) Press, 2014.  Destiny Domesticated investigates…

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Wittgenstein 2.0: Philosophical reading and writing after the mediatic turn

Wittgenstein 2.0: Philosophical reading and writing after the mediatic turn

Jos de Mul. Wittgenstein 2.0: Philosophical reading and writing after the mediatic turn. In: A. Pichler & H. Hrachovec (eds.) Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Information. Proceedings…

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The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility

The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility

Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens and Jos de Mul, The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility. Heinrich Böll Stiftung. European Union. December…

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Horizons of Hermeneutics

Horizons of Hermeneutics

Jos de Mul. Horizons of Hermeneutics: Intercultural Hermeneutics in a Globalizing World.  Frontiers of Philosophy in China. Vol. 6, No. 4 (2011), 628-655. DOI: 10.1007/s11466-011-0159-x (DOI) 10.1007/s11466-011-0159-x…

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《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》

《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》

约斯·德·穆尔 (Jos de Mul),里斯贝思·努尔德格拉芙 (Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens):《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》(The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility),《社会科学战线》2012年第4期(Social Science Front no.4 2012),《新华文摘》2012年第13期全文转载(Xinhua Digest ,no13 2012).

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The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Recombination

The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Recombination

Jos de Mul. The work of art in the age of digital recombination. In J. Raessens, M. Schäfer, M. v. d. Boomen, Lehmann and S. A.-S.…

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PedoBot® is niet boos, maar wel verdrietig (en soms opgewonden)

PedoBot® is niet boos, maar wel verdrietig (en soms opgewonden)

Jos de Mul. PedoBot® is niet boos, maar wel verdrietig (en soms opgewonden). Over intelligente robots, emoties en sociale interactie. In J.B. de Jong (red.),…

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The game of life. Narrative and ludic identity formation in computer games

The game of life. Narrative and ludic identity formation in computer games

Jos de Mul. The game of life. Narrative and ludic identity formation in computer games. In: J. Goldstein and J. Raessens,Handbook of Computer Games Studies. Cambridge MA…

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Possible printings.  On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design

Possible printings. On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design

Jos de Mul. Possible printings. On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design. In: B. van den Berg, S. van der Hof & E. Kosta…

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Possible printings.  On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design

Possible printings. On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design

Jos de Mul. Possible printings. On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design. In: B. van den Berg, S. van der Hof & E. Kosta…

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Boeken: beschrijving en recensies

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Jos de Mul. Philosophical Anthropology 2.0. In: Jos de Mul. (ed.), Plessner's Philosophical Anthropology. Perspectives and Prospects. Amsterdam/Chicago: Amsterdam University Press/Chicago University Press, 2014, 457-475.


Introduction

The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the relevance of Helmuth Plessner’s philosophical anthropology in the twenty-first century. In the first part of this chapter, I will argue that the heydays of philosophical anthropology in the first half of the twentieth is closely connected with the (Darwinian) naturalization of the worldview. Whereas the debate on naturalization resulted in an unfruitful opposition between ‘greedy reductionism’ and a no less ‘greedy transcendentism,’ Plessner’s philosophical anthropology, presented in his magnum opus Die Stufen des Organischen undderMensch (1928), offered a promising ‘third way.’

In the second part of this chapter, I will discuss some of the objections that have been raised in the course of the twentieth century against the alleged essentialism and anthropocentrism of the project of philosophical anthropology, and which, at least according to the critics, suggest that philosophical anthropology has to face the same fate as its subject ‘man,’ which - to use the often quoted metaphor of Foucault - is about to be “erased like a face drawn in the sand at the edge of the sea” (Foucault 1970, 387). I will argue that, although Plessner is far from being a hardboiled essentialist or a defender of anthropocentrism, the critiques invite a revision of at least some elements of Plessner’s philosophical anthropology in order to make room for a necessary reflection upon the challenges we face at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

In the third and last part of my chapter, I will argue that such a revi­sion is especially needed in light of neo-Darwinism and the converging technologies that are intertwined with it. These technologies promise - or threaten, depending on one’s perspective - to give Foucault’s ‘End of Man’ a material turn. While classical Darwinism challenged the human place in cosmos mainly in theoretical terms, converging technologies like genetic modification, neuro-enhancement and electronic implants, have the po­tential to ‘overcome’ Homo sapiens sapiens as we know it in a more radical, practical sense.[1] This creates within us a certain urge towards fundamental post-essentialist and post-anthropocentric human self-reflection. The claim I will underpin is that Plessner’s anthropology still offers a fruitful starting point for the development of this ‘philosophical anthropology 2.0.’ I will demonstrate this by a critical re-interpretation of Plessner’s three ‘anthro­pological laws’ in light of the aforementioned converging technologies.

Gepubliceerd in: Boekbijdragen
maandag, 05 januari 2015 14:29

The game of life

Jos de Mul. The Game of Life: Narrative and Ludic Identity Formation in Computer Games.  In: Lori Way (ed.), Representations of Internarrative Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Representations of Internarrative Identity is based upon Ajit Maan's breakthrough theory of Internarrative Identity, which deals with one's sense of self as expressed in personal narrative, connecting the formation of identity with life experiences. This book is the first extensive examination of the adaptive qualities of Maan's work within diverse areas of scholarship and practice, including cultural studies, gender studies, computer gaming, and veterinary medicine. United by their research application of Maan's theory, these scholars demonstrate the far-reaching implications of Internarrative Identity.



Gepubliceerd in: Boekbijdragen
约斯·德·穆尔:《从开放设计到元设计——3D打印数据库本体的冲击》,《社会科学战线》2014年第10期。[Jos de Mul, From open design to metadesign. Social Science Front, no.10, 2014, 248-254]

国外社会科学从开放设计到元设计(metadesign)  ——3D打印数据库本体的冲击

约斯·德·穆尔

(伊拉斯谟大学哲学系,荷兰鹿特丹 3062PA)

摘要:3D打印技术日益成熟并开始为诸多领域所应用,已经并将持续对科学技术和人类生活各个领域产生革命性影响。而3D打印与其他科学技术特别是生物技术一样,毁誉参半,对其是否应该广泛应用争论不下。文章将从3D打印对设计界的影响,特别是对于计算机本体数据库的应用角度分析、阐释该技术的优势及其广泛应用的不可回避性,提醒要重视其负面效应。

关键词:3D打印;元设计;本体数据库

3D打印作为一项备受关注的技术,其令人咋舌的功能在医疗、工业、生活领域内引起的巨大变革已经使我们不得不持续对其关注和思考。3D 技术在法律、监管、社会、政治以及经济模型创新等方面都已经有了不同理论维度的探讨。在这篇文章里,我将不同于以往的讨论,从另外一个角度——设计,特别是开放设计(open design)的角度来讨论3D打印的问题。

在Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing[1]这本书中,Lipson和Kurman认为“3D技术是我们设计和制作东西的方式的一场革命”,因为它把一个物体的软件设计和它的实物显示(physical manifestation)之间的关系变得异常紧密。[2]尽管我认为在信息与通讯技术(ICT)世界里,当说起革命一词,我们应该多少有所怀疑,但是,很明显,3D技术在很多领域都有前途,而且,因其开放的特点(至少在一些方面是)而对传统设计实践提出了挑战。

接下来,我将讨论数据库本体(database ontology)的蕴意,这种数据库本体表征着我们当今设计界。我将要强调,为了发展开放设计的积极一面而不落陷阱,设计者不应该轻易放弃作为设计者的活动,而且更应该重新设计这些活动。未来的设计者不得不成为一个数据设计者,一个元设计者,他们不是设计一种客体对象,而是设计一个空间,在这个空间里,没有技巧的使用者可以通过使用者友好界面(user-friendly)设计自己的东西。

3D打印可以看作设计界的一个发展,它使设计行为的重新定义成为必要。2010年阿姆斯特丹重新定义设计大会[3]的宣传词中对开放设计的状况描述道:“设计工业正在经历着根本性的改变。开放设计、可下载的设计和分散的设计使得设计工业民主化,也意味着任何人都可以成为设计者和制造者。”这则消息的潜在意思似乎是说,开放设计,本质上是好的,我们应该发展它。(为了简略,我用open design 这个词来总括之前提到的那些设计界的发展,包括了可下载的、分散的设计以及重组模块使设计变得个性化,并用3D在家里或街角的专业商店打印出来)。尽管我对开放设计(或者任你管它叫什么)总体上持积极的态度,但是我认为还是应该注意这进程中的困难和陷阱,以避免我们会犯那种将孩子和洗澡水一起泼出去的错误。

文章分三个部分。首先我会对开放设计进行一个简要的描述。大部分人对开放设计是熟悉的,但是由于这个概念具有诸多不同的含义,因此容易产生概念混淆,对这些含义谜团进行说明或许是有用的。在论文的这部分,我也会概括一些开放设计将会或者已经遇到的反对意见。

正像“开放运动”(open movement)的其他成员一样,开放设计在很大程度上与个人电脑和互联网紧密相关(我们将会看到,开放运动包括多个运动,比如开放软件资源、开放科学、开放科技等。特别是开放生物学运动,是开放运动中一个很有意思的例子)。由于这个原因,为了能够对开放设计的机遇和陷阱都看得更清楚,我们应该研究一下数字领域(digital domain)的基本特点。因此,在论文第二部分,我会简要描述数据库本体,它是计算机的基础(ABCD of computing),也是数字领域的基础。

在论文第三部分,我会探讨一些数据库本体对设计界的影响。我将强调,为了发展开放设计的积极方面,而不掉入陷阱,设计者不应该过多放弃作为设计者的活动,而是重新设计这些活动。今后的设计者应当成为数据库设计者,或者说元设计者,他们不设计物品,而是定义设计空间,以便于那些缺乏技巧的用户以简便易行的方式进行设计。

一、开放设计

Jos de Mul, The possibility of an island. Michel Houellebecq's tragic humanism. Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology, Vol. 1 (2014), Issue 1, pp. 91–110.

 

The Possibility of an Island: Michel Houellebecq’s Tragic Humanism1

Jos de Mul

Abstract

Various authors, including Friedrich Nietzsche and George Steiner, have argued that the tragic worldview, as we find it expressed in Greek tragedy, has become an entirely incomprehensible phenomenon for (post)modern man. The claim defended in this article radically opposes this view. It is argued that tragedy can still teach us something today, and maybe even more so now than in the many intervening centuries that separate us from her days of glory in the fifth century bce. The tragic reveals itself once more in (post)modern society, and nowhere more clearly than in technology, the domain in which we believed the tragic had been domesticated or even eliminated. Referring to the tragic humanism in Michel Houellebecq’s novels The Elementary Particles and The Possibility of an Island it is argued that it is precisely in (post)modern (bio)technologies that we experience the rebirth of the tragic.

Keywords: tragedy, technology, humanism, transhumanism, Michel Houellebecq, Friedrich Nietzsche

(together with V. Frissen, M. de Lange, S. Lammes & J. Raessens, eds.), Playful identities. The Ludification of Digital Media Cultures. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2015.

Digital media technologies increasingly shape how people relate to the world, to other people and to themselves. This prompts questions about present-day mediations of identity. This book explores the notion of play as a heuristic lens to look at changing media practices and identity construction. Playful media culture is analyzed far beyond its apparent manifestation in computer games. The central argument of the book is that play and games nowadays are not only appropriate metaphors to capture post-modern human identities, but also the very means by which people reflexively construct their identity.

Playful Identities presents academic research at the intersection of media theory, play and games studies, social sciences and philosophy. The book carves out a cross-disciplinary domain that connects the most recent insights from play and game studies, media research, and identity studies.

Valerie Frissen is ceo of the SIDN Fund and professor of ict & Social Change at Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Sybille Lammes is associate professor at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Methodologies at the University of Warwick.

Michiel de Lange is a part-time lecturer New Media Studies at Utrecht University.

Jos de Mul is full professor of Philosophy of Man and Culture at the Faculty of Philosophy of Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Joost Raessens is full professor of Media Theory at the Faculty of Humanities of Utrecht University.

“An illuminating study on the increasingly complexity of ludic media and technologies of the self.”
– Prof. Dr. Mathias Fuchs, Leuphana University Lüneburg

“What a brilliant, refreshing, and positively playful approach to the ludic imperative. These are the smartest, most articulate, and up-to-date essays on this subject, by the very people creating this field of study.”
– Douglas Rushkoff, author, Present Shock, Program or Be Programmed, and Playing the Future.

 Thanks to a  grant from The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) this book can be downloaded for free in the OApen Library (Open Access Publishing in European Networks). 

Gepubliceerd in: Boeken
Jos de Mul. Over de toekomst van de mens. Lezing in de serie Big History. Leusden: Internationale School voor Wijsbegeerte, 6 mei, 2016.

De ISVW presenteert: de geschiedenis van het universum en de mensheid, in één week. Eén vloeiend verhaal, eindigend met een blik op de toekomst.

Toonaangevende wetenschappers delen met u de centrale inzichten uit hun vakgebied, zodat u grip krijgt op het grootste verhaal dat we als mens kunnen vertellen. Prof. Vincent Icke start bij de Big Bang en maakt u wegwijs in de ontwikkeling van sterren, planeten en natuurlijk de formatie van de planeet aarde. Prof. Salomon Kroonenberg duikt de geologische geschiedenis van de aarde in en zal inzichtelijk maken hoe de aarde werkt en hoe bijzonder ons huidige klimaat is. De evolutie van leven op aarde en hoe leven überhaupt is ontstaan zal worden verzorgd door prof. Nico van Straalen. Met dr. Fred Spier kijken we naar de ontwikkeling van de mens: wanneer liep de eerste mens rond en waar ontstonden de eerste samenlevingen? Met prof. Jos de Mul staan we stil bij de maakbaarheid van de mens en de toekomst van Homo sapiens 3.0.

Gepubliceerd in: Lezingen
Jos de Mul. Cognitive space, global brains, and the hive mind An evolutionary account of information and communication technologies. Lecture at Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto. July 22, 2016.

The emergence of information and communications technologies (ICTs) can be regarded as a milestone in the cognitive evolution of mankind, comparable to the two other major transitions of the cognitive structure of the genus Homo: the development of spoken language, and the invention of writing. In order to fully understand the new cognitive space disclosed by recent information and communication technologies, we have to situate it against the background of these two earlier transitions. It will be argued that new technologies like the internet, wireless communication and brain implants are part of an ongoing construction of a global brain and the emergence of a hive mind. 

Gepubliceerd in: Lezingen
Jos de Mul. The Turing Test in recent science fiction films. A philosophical analysis against the background of the Turing-Wittgenstein Debate. Kyoto: Hiroshi Ishiguro Laboratories, June 21, 2016.

The British mathematician, computer scientist and philosopher Alan Turing (1912 -1954) is not only the inventor of the programmable computer, but also one of the pioneers of artificial intelligence. He also invented the imitation game, a test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human. This so-called Turing test plays a prominent role in several recent science fiction movies, such as Her (2013), Ex machina(2015), and Uncanny (2015). Against the background of the Turing-Wittgenstein debate on the possibility of thinking machines (1938), I will discuss what these movies tell us about the present prospects with regard to humanoid AI and robot systems.

EricaJosHiroshi Ishiguro Laboratories were founded to encourage and promote studies based on original and unique ideas from Hiroshi Ishiguro, ATR Fellow, who has remarkable achievements on robotics. We have explored new information media based on humanlike robots that harmonize humans with information-environment beyond existing personal computers, while inquiring the question "what is the essence of human beings?"

Erica is an android developed as a research platform for the autonomous conversational robot. We are developing total technology to enable Erica to have natural interaction with persons by integrating various technologies such as voice recognition, human tracking, and natural motion generation. It has nineteen degrees of freedom for face, neck, shoulder, and waist, and can express various facial expressions and some gestural motions. Its appearance is designed for beautiful and neutral female face, by which people can familiarly interact with it. It speaks in synthesized voice. 

Watch movie  Read the article in the International New York Times

Gepubliceerd in: Lezingen
Jos de Mul. Turingeluurs.  Kunstmatige intelligenties in de films Her, Ex machina en Uncanny. Lezing tijdens de Nacht van de Filosofie in Den Haag. Electriciteitsfabriek, 14 april 2016, 22:00-23:15.

Aan de hand van drie films [Her, Ex Machina en Uncanny] zal Jos de Mul ingaan op de vraag of de grensvervaging tussen mensen en intelligente robots werkelijk aanstaande is.

Gepubliceerd in: Lezingen
Jos de Mul, Michel Houellebecq’s tragic humanism. Lecture in the series Personhood, Law & Literature , organized by the Human Philosophy Project (Warsaw University & Oxford University). Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw. Room 4, roundfloor. April 7, 2016, 5-8 PM.

Various authors, including Friedrich Nietzsche and George Steiner, have argued that the tragic worldview, as we find it expressed in Greek tragedy, has become an entirely incomprehensible phenomenon for (post)modern man. The claim defended in this article radically opposes this view. It is argued that tragedy can still teach us something today, and maybe even more so now than in the many intervening centuries that separate us from her days of glory in the fifth century bce. The tragic reveals itself once more in (post)modern society, and nowhere more clearly than in technology, the domain in which we believed the tragic had been domesticated or even eliminated. Referring to the tragic humanism in Michel Houellebecq’s novels The Elementary Particles and The Possibility of an Island it is argued that it is precisely in (post)modern (bio)technologies that we experience the rebirth of the tragic.

Gepubliceerd in: Lezingen