Paniek in de Polder. Polytiek in tijden van populisme

Paniek in de Polder. Polytiek in tijden van populisme

Jos de Mul. Paniek in de Polder. Polytiek in tijden van populisme. Rotterdam: Lemniscaat, februari 2017. Uitgebreide en geactualiseerde editie met twee extra hoofdstukken en…

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Kunstmatig van nature. Onderweg naar Homo sapiens 3.0

Kunstmatig van nature. Onderweg naar Homo sapiens 3.0

Jos de Mul, Kunstmatig van nature. Onderweg naar Homo sapiens 3.0. Essay Maand van de Filosofie. Rotterdam: Lemiscaat, 2014.1ste druk: 2014; 2de druk: 2016.  In…

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Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology

Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology

Jos de Mul. Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology. State University of New York (SUNY) Press, 2014.  Destiny Domesticated investigates…

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Wittgenstein 2.0: Philosophical reading and writing after the mediatic turn

Wittgenstein 2.0: Philosophical reading and writing after the mediatic turn

Jos de Mul. Wittgenstein 2.0: Philosophical reading and writing after the mediatic turn. In: A. Pichler & H. Hrachovec (eds.) Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Information. Proceedings…

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The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility

The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility

Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens and Jos de Mul, The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility. Heinrich Böll Stiftung. European Union. December…

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Horizons of Hermeneutics

Horizons of Hermeneutics

Jos de Mul. Horizons of Hermeneutics: Intercultural Hermeneutics in a Globalizing World.  Frontiers of Philosophy in China. Vol. 6, No. 4 (2011), 628-655. DOI: 10.1007/s11466-011-0159-x (DOI) 10.1007/s11466-011-0159-x…

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《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》

《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》

约斯·德·穆尔 (Jos de Mul),里斯贝思·努尔德格拉芙 (Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens):《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》(The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility),《社会科学战线》2012年第4期(Social Science Front no.4 2012),《新华文摘》2012年第13期全文转载(Xinhua Digest ,no13 2012).

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The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Recombination

The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Recombination

Jos de Mul. The work of art in the age of digital recombination. In J. Raessens, M. Schäfer, M. v. d. Boomen, Lehmann and S. A.-S.…

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PedoBot® is niet boos, maar wel verdrietig (en soms opgewonden)

PedoBot® is niet boos, maar wel verdrietig (en soms opgewonden)

Jos de Mul. PedoBot® is niet boos, maar wel verdrietig (en soms opgewonden). Over intelligente robots, emoties en sociale interactie. In J.B. de Jong (red.),…

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The game of life. Narrative and ludic identity formation in computer games

The game of life. Narrative and ludic identity formation in computer games

Jos de Mul. The game of life. Narrative and ludic identity formation in computer games. In: J. Goldstein and J. Raessens,Handbook of Computer Games Studies. Cambridge MA…

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Possible printings.  On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design

Possible printings. On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design

Jos de Mul. Possible printings. On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design. In: B. van den Berg, S. van der Hof & E. Kosta…

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Possible printings.  On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design

Possible printings. On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design

Jos de Mul. Possible printings. On 3D printing, database ontology and open (meta)design. In: B. van den Berg, S. van der Hof & E. Kosta…

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zaterdag, 19 september 2015 08:03

2015-09-19 (Trouw) Waarom we robots zo vrezen

Jos de Mul. Waarom we robots zo vrezen. Trouw.  Zaterdag 19 september, 2015. Letter & Geest, 4-7.

Hoe mooier en slimmer robots zijn, des te groter de existentiële angst die ze bij ons oproepen. Ze krenken ons narcisme, zo laten recente films  krachtig zien. Maar is dat terecht?

Robots hebben wat beeldvorming betreft een belabberd jaar achter de rug. Oxford University voorspelde dat robots binnen twintig jaar 50 procent van de huidige banen zullen inpikken. In juli waarschuwden wetenschappers voor de ontwikkeling van ‘vliegende robots’, autonome drones, die zonder menselijke aansturing een doelwit selecteren en uitschakelen. En ook de vrees van de beroemde natuurkundige Stephan Hawking dat superieure kunstmatige intelligenties wel eens een einde zouden kunnen betekenen voor het menselijk ras, haalde de voorpagina’s.

Jos de Mul. Hoe de overheid vertrouwen verspeelt - en kan heroveren. Trouw, Letter & Geest, 4 juli 2015, 4-7.

Online winkelen, vakantie boeken: we gebruiken massaal internet. Maar  de helft van de Nederlanders vertrouwt de ICT-systemen van de overheid niet erg, stelde de Nationale ombudsman in 2013 vast. Toch wil het kabinet dat we over twee jaar allemaal onze zaken met die overheid via internet regelen. 

Waar komt het wantrouwen tegen de overheid vandaan? En wat kan de overheid daartegen doen?

Alberto Romelo. Multiculturalismo, nuove tecnologie e religione. Interview a Jos de Mul. Confronti. No. 6, 2015, 26-28.

Multiculturalismo, nuove tecnologie e religione

In epoche storiche lontane, i cambiamenti avvenivano con molta lentezza e le società tendevano a essere più omogenee. Oggi - soprattutto grazie ai nuovi media - c'è più scambio tra culture diverse, le persone sono in grado di entrare in contatto e conoscerle, quindi hanno maggiore possibilité di scelta.

Jos de Mul è professore di Antropologia filosofica all’università Erasmus di Rotterdam, dove è a capo della sezione Filosofia dell’uomo e della cultura. Inoltre, è direttore dell’istituto di ricerca «Filosofia delle tecnologie dell’informazione e della comunicazione» (ɸIct). Tra le sue pubblicazioni in inglese, Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology (2014), Cyberspace Odyssey. Towards a Virtual Ontology and Anthropology (2010) e The Tragedy of Finitude. Dilthey’s Hermeneutics of Life (2004). L’abbiamo intervistato a Porto, in Portogallo, dove si trovava e ci trovavamo per una conferenza dal titolo «Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger? Philosophical investigations into Big Data».

In un suo recente articolo, per spiegare cos’è il multiculturalismo, fa l’esempio di una ragazza incrociata nella metropolitana di Rotterdam. Per me è stato illuminante. Potrebbe riprenderlo qui?

Si trattava di una sorta di fenomeno ibrido, perché era musulmana (portava il velo) ma allo stesso tempo usava dei pattini, aveva una t-shirt con lo smile e un telefono in mano. Stava parlando, probabilmente con un’amica, in uno strano misto di arabo e olandese con un forte accento di Rotterdam. Per me è diventata una specie di simbolo della società multiculturale in cui ci troviamo oggi. Certo, penso che le culture siano sempre state una specie di ricombinazione di elementi presi da tradizioni più antiche o da altre tradizioni.

Gepubliceerd in: Interviews / geschreven pers
Jos de Mul, Database Identity: Personal and Cultural Identity in the Age of Global Datafication. in: Wouter de Been, Payal Aurora and Mireille Hildebrandt (Eds.), Crossroads in New Media, Identity and Law. The Shape of Diversity to Come. Personal and Cultural Identity in the Age of Global Datafication. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, 97-118. 

This volume brings together a number of timely contributions at the nexus of new media, politics and law. The central intuition that ties these essays together is that information and communication technology, cultural identity, and legal and political institutions are spheres that co-evolve and interpenetrate in myriad ways. Discussing these shifting relationships, the contributions all probe the question of what shape diversity will take as a result of the changes in the way we communicate and spread information: that is, are we heading to the disintegration and fragmentation of national and cultural identity, or is society moving towards more consolidation, standardization and centralization at a transnational level? In an age of digitization and globalization, this book addresses the question of whether this calls for a new civility fit for the 21st century.

Jos de Mul, to begin with, takes the issue of identity head-on in his contribution. He argues that new networked communication technologies are leading to a datafication of identity. New ICTs are transforming traditional ‘narrative identity’ into a more plastic form of ‘database identity.’ Identity as the product of a linear development, as an outgrowth of a particular personal or group history – the bread and butter of the imagined community – is on the wane. Increasingly identity is broken up into machine-readable elements and stored in digital memory banks. This allows for an endless combination and re-combination of features. By itself this process does not necessarily result in a world of freedom and play, however. Although database identities allow for an extraordinary range of choice and are well suited to the freedom and flexibility of postmodern culture, there is a great deal of uniformity in the forms that database identities actually take. Hence, De Mul also addresses the standardization of identity in the prefabricated formats of social media, underlining the new entrapments of the digital age.

 

Gepubliceerd in: Boekbijdragen
Jos de Mul. Terug naar de natuur? Nee, bedankt. Trouw. Letter en Geest. Zaterdag 2 mei, 2015, 4-7.

De Vereniging Natuurmonumenten, die op 22 april j.l. precies 110 jaar bestond, hield ter gelegenheid daarvan in Amersfoort een voorjaarsforum over natuurinnovatie onder de prikkelende titel ‘Technologie, natuurlijk’. Jos de Mul was een van de sprekers op dit forum. De volgende tekst is een ingekorte versie van zijn lezing.

Niet terug, maar vooruit naar de natuur!

En dan: wat is natuur nog in dit land? Een stukje bos, ter grootte van een krant. De dichter Bloem zat er, domweg gelukkig in de Dapperstraat,  niet echt mee, maar veel Nederlanders wel. De Vereniging Natuurmonumenten driekwart miljoen leden - daar kunnen politieke partijen slechts van dromen.

De vereniging beweert dat de natuur ernstig wordt bedreigd. We lezen op de website: “In een dichtbevolkt land is natuur extra kwetsbaar. Daarom beschermt Natuurmonumenten natuurgebieden, waardevolle landschappen en cultureel erfgoed. Overal in Nederland. Voor iedereen. Die natuur stellen we veilig tot in de eeuwigheid door natuur aan te kopen, te beheren en toegankelijk te maken voor iedereen.” 

Mooi. Maar wat zijn precies die natuurgebieden, welke landschappen zijn het waard behouden te worden, en wat maakt een natuurgebied tot cultureel erfgoed?

Jos de Mul. Philosophical Anthropology 2.0. In: Jos de Mul. (ed.), Plessner's Philosophical Anthropology. Perspectives and Prospects. Amsterdam/Chicago: Amsterdam University Press/Chicago University Press, 2014, 457-475.


Introduction

The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the relevance of Helmuth Plessner’s philosophical anthropology in the twenty-first century. In the first part of this chapter, I will argue that the heydays of philosophical anthropology in the first half of the twentieth is closely connected with the (Darwinian) naturalization of the worldview. Whereas the debate on naturalization resulted in an unfruitful opposition between ‘greedy reductionism’ and a no less ‘greedy transcendentism,’ Plessner’s philosophical anthropology, presented in his magnum opus Die Stufen des Organischen undderMensch (1928), offered a promising ‘third way.’

In the second part of this chapter, I will discuss some of the objections that have been raised in the course of the twentieth century against the alleged essentialism and anthropocentrism of the project of philosophical anthropology, and which, at least according to the critics, suggest that philosophical anthropology has to face the same fate as its subject ‘man,’ which - to use the often quoted metaphor of Foucault - is about to be “erased like a face drawn in the sand at the edge of the sea” (Foucault 1970, 387). I will argue that, although Plessner is far from being a hardboiled essentialist or a defender of anthropocentrism, the critiques invite a revision of at least some elements of Plessner’s philosophical anthropology in order to make room for a necessary reflection upon the challenges we face at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

In the third and last part of my chapter, I will argue that such a revi­sion is especially needed in light of neo-Darwinism and the converging technologies that are intertwined with it. These technologies promise - or threaten, depending on one’s perspective - to give Foucault’s ‘End of Man’ a material turn. While classical Darwinism challenged the human place in cosmos mainly in theoretical terms, converging technologies like genetic modification, neuro-enhancement and electronic implants, have the po­tential to ‘overcome’ Homo sapiens sapiens as we know it in a more radical, practical sense.[1] This creates within us a certain urge towards fundamental post-essentialist and post-anthropocentric human self-reflection. The claim I will underpin is that Plessner’s anthropology still offers a fruitful starting point for the development of this ‘philosophical anthropology 2.0.’ I will demonstrate this by a critical re-interpretation of Plessner’s three ‘anthro­pological laws’ in light of the aforementioned converging technologies.

Gepubliceerd in: Boekbijdragen
maandag, 05 januari 2015 14:29

The game of life

Jos de Mul. The Game of Life: Narrative and Ludic Identity Formation in Computer Games.  In: Lori Way (ed.), Representations of Internarrative Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Representations of Internarrative Identity is based upon Ajit Maan's breakthrough theory of Internarrative Identity, which deals with one's sense of self as expressed in personal narrative, connecting the formation of identity with life experiences. This book is the first extensive examination of the adaptive qualities of Maan's work within diverse areas of scholarship and practice, including cultural studies, gender studies, computer gaming, and veterinary medicine. United by their research application of Maan's theory, these scholars demonstrate the far-reaching implications of Internarrative Identity.



Gepubliceerd in: Boekbijdragen
约斯·德·穆尔:《从开放设计到元设计——3D打印数据库本体的冲击》,《社会科学战线》2014年第10期。[Jos de Mul, From open design to metadesign. Social Science Front, no.10, 2014, 248-254]

国外社会科学从开放设计到元设计(metadesign)  ——3D打印数据库本体的冲击

约斯·德·穆尔

(伊拉斯谟大学哲学系,荷兰鹿特丹 3062PA)

摘要:3D打印技术日益成熟并开始为诸多领域所应用,已经并将持续对科学技术和人类生活各个领域产生革命性影响。而3D打印与其他科学技术特别是生物技术一样,毁誉参半,对其是否应该广泛应用争论不下。文章将从3D打印对设计界的影响,特别是对于计算机本体数据库的应用角度分析、阐释该技术的优势及其广泛应用的不可回避性,提醒要重视其负面效应。

关键词:3D打印;元设计;本体数据库

3D打印作为一项备受关注的技术,其令人咋舌的功能在医疗、工业、生活领域内引起的巨大变革已经使我们不得不持续对其关注和思考。3D 技术在法律、监管、社会、政治以及经济模型创新等方面都已经有了不同理论维度的探讨。在这篇文章里,我将不同于以往的讨论,从另外一个角度——设计,特别是开放设计(open design)的角度来讨论3D打印的问题。

在Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing[1]这本书中,Lipson和Kurman认为“3D技术是我们设计和制作东西的方式的一场革命”,因为它把一个物体的软件设计和它的实物显示(physical manifestation)之间的关系变得异常紧密。[2]尽管我认为在信息与通讯技术(ICT)世界里,当说起革命一词,我们应该多少有所怀疑,但是,很明显,3D技术在很多领域都有前途,而且,因其开放的特点(至少在一些方面是)而对传统设计实践提出了挑战。

接下来,我将讨论数据库本体(database ontology)的蕴意,这种数据库本体表征着我们当今设计界。我将要强调,为了发展开放设计的积极一面而不落陷阱,设计者不应该轻易放弃作为设计者的活动,而且更应该重新设计这些活动。未来的设计者不得不成为一个数据设计者,一个元设计者,他们不是设计一种客体对象,而是设计一个空间,在这个空间里,没有技巧的使用者可以通过使用者友好界面(user-friendly)设计自己的东西。

3D打印可以看作设计界的一个发展,它使设计行为的重新定义成为必要。2010年阿姆斯特丹重新定义设计大会[3]的宣传词中对开放设计的状况描述道:“设计工业正在经历着根本性的改变。开放设计、可下载的设计和分散的设计使得设计工业民主化,也意味着任何人都可以成为设计者和制造者。”这则消息的潜在意思似乎是说,开放设计,本质上是好的,我们应该发展它。(为了简略,我用open design 这个词来总括之前提到的那些设计界的发展,包括了可下载的、分散的设计以及重组模块使设计变得个性化,并用3D在家里或街角的专业商店打印出来)。尽管我对开放设计(或者任你管它叫什么)总体上持积极的态度,但是我认为还是应该注意这进程中的困难和陷阱,以避免我们会犯那种将孩子和洗澡水一起泼出去的错误。

文章分三个部分。首先我会对开放设计进行一个简要的描述。大部分人对开放设计是熟悉的,但是由于这个概念具有诸多不同的含义,因此容易产生概念混淆,对这些含义谜团进行说明或许是有用的。在论文的这部分,我也会概括一些开放设计将会或者已经遇到的反对意见。

正像“开放运动”(open movement)的其他成员一样,开放设计在很大程度上与个人电脑和互联网紧密相关(我们将会看到,开放运动包括多个运动,比如开放软件资源、开放科学、开放科技等。特别是开放生物学运动,是开放运动中一个很有意思的例子)。由于这个原因,为了能够对开放设计的机遇和陷阱都看得更清楚,我们应该研究一下数字领域(digital domain)的基本特点。因此,在论文第二部分,我会简要描述数据库本体,它是计算机的基础(ABCD of computing),也是数字领域的基础。

在论文第三部分,我会探讨一些数据库本体对设计界的影响。我将强调,为了发展开放设计的积极方面,而不掉入陷阱,设计者不应该过多放弃作为设计者的活动,而是重新设计这些活动。今后的设计者应当成为数据库设计者,或者说元设计者,他们不设计物品,而是定义设计空间,以便于那些缺乏技巧的用户以简便易行的方式进行设计。

一、开放设计

Jos de Mul, The possibility of an island. Michel Houellebecq's tragic humanism. Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology, Vol. 1 (2014), Issue 1, pp. 91–110.

 

The Possibility of an Island: Michel Houellebecq’s Tragic Humanism1

Jos de Mul

Abstract

Various authors, including Friedrich Nietzsche and George Steiner, have argued that the tragic worldview, as we find it expressed in Greek tragedy, has become an entirely incomprehensible phenomenon for (post)modern man. The claim defended in this article radically opposes this view. It is argued that tragedy can still teach us something today, and maybe even more so now than in the many intervening centuries that separate us from her days of glory in the fifth century bce. The tragic reveals itself once more in (post)modern society, and nowhere more clearly than in technology, the domain in which we believed the tragic had been domesticated or even eliminated. Referring to the tragic humanism in Michel Houellebecq’s novels The Elementary Particles and The Possibility of an Island it is argued that it is precisely in (post)modern (bio)technologies that we experience the rebirth of the tragic.

Keywords: tragedy, technology, humanism, transhumanism, Michel Houellebecq, Friedrich Nietzsche

(together with V. Frissen, M. de Lange, S. Lammes & J. Raessens, eds.), Playful identities. The Ludification of Digital Media Cultures. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2015.

Digital media technologies increasingly shape how people relate to the world, to other people and to themselves. This prompts questions about present-day mediations of identity. This book explores the notion of play as a heuristic lens to look at changing media practices and identity construction. Playful media culture is analyzed far beyond its apparent manifestation in computer games. The central argument of the book is that play and games nowadays are not only appropriate metaphors to capture post-modern human identities, but also the very means by which people reflexively construct their identity.

Playful Identities presents academic research at the intersection of media theory, play and games studies, social sciences and philosophy. The book carves out a cross-disciplinary domain that connects the most recent insights from play and game studies, media research, and identity studies.

Valerie Frissen is ceo of the SIDN Fund and professor of ict & Social Change at Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Sybille Lammes is associate professor at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Methodologies at the University of Warwick.

Michiel de Lange is a part-time lecturer New Media Studies at Utrecht University.

Jos de Mul is full professor of Philosophy of Man and Culture at the Faculty of Philosophy of Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Joost Raessens is full professor of Media Theory at the Faculty of Humanities of Utrecht University.

“An illuminating study on the increasingly complexity of ludic media and technologies of the self.”
– Prof. Dr. Mathias Fuchs, Leuphana University Lüneburg

“What a brilliant, refreshing, and positively playful approach to the ludic imperative. These are the smartest, most articulate, and up-to-date essays on this subject, by the very people creating this field of study.”
– Douglas Rushkoff, author, Present Shock, Program or Be Programmed, and Playing the Future.

 Thanks to a  grant from The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) this book can be downloaded for free in the OApen Library (Open Access Publishing in European Networks). 

Gepubliceerd in: Boeken