Breng mij die horizon! Filosofische reisverhalen

Breng mij die horizon! Filosofische reisverhalen

Jos de Mul. Breng me die horizon! Filosofische reisverhalen. Amsterdam: Boom, 2019.  Breng mij die horizon! laat zien wat er gebeurt…

De domesticatie van het noodlot. De wedergeboorte van de tragedie uit de geest van de technologie

De domesticatie van het noodlot. De wedergeboorte van de tragedie uit de geest van de technologie

Jos de Mul. De domesticatie van het noodlot. De wedergeboorte van de tragedie uit de geest van de technologie. Rotterdam: Lemniscaat,…

Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology

Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology

Jos de Mul. Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology. State University of New York (SUNY)…

命运的驯化——悲剧重生于技术精神 内容简介 (Chinese translation of Destiny Domesticated\)

命运的驯化——悲剧重生于技术精神 内容简介 (Chinese translation of Destiny Domesticated\)

Jos de Mul. 命运的驯化——悲剧重生于技术精神 内容简介 (Chinese translation of Destiny Domesticated. The Rebirth of Tragedy Out of the Spirit of Technology). Guilin:…

Romantic Desire in (Post)Modern Art and Philosophy

Romantic Desire in (Post)Modern Art and Philosophy

Jos de Mul. Romantic Desire in (Post)Modern Art and Philosophy. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999, 316 p.…

Het romantische verlangen in (post)moderne kunst en filosofie

Het romantische verlangen in (post)moderne kunst en filosofie

Jos de Mul. Het romantische verlangen in (post)moderne kunst en filosofie. Uitgeverij Klement, 2007 (4de druk), 284 p. 1de druk, 1990; 2de druk, 1991; 3de…

后)现代艺术与哲学中的浪漫之欲。Chinese translation of Romantic Desire in (Post)Modern Art and Philosophy

后)现代艺术与哲学中的浪漫之欲。Chinese translation of Romantic Desire in (Post)Modern Art and Philosophy

Jos de Mul. 后)现代艺术与哲学中的浪漫之欲。Chinese translation of Romantic Desire in (Post)Modern Art and Philosophy. Wuhan: Wuhan University Press, 2010, 306p. ISBN 978-7-307-08019-5RMB…

Cyberspace Odyssee

Cyberspace Odyssee

Jos de Mul. Cyberspace Odyssee. Kampen: Klement, 6de druk: 2010, 352 p. 1de druk, 2002; 2de druk, 2003; 3de druk,2004;…

Cyberspace Odyssey. Towards a Virtual Ontology and Anthropology

Cyberspace Odyssey. Towards a Virtual Ontology and Anthropology

Jos de Mul. Cyberspace Odyssey. Towards a Virtual Ontology and Anthropology. Castle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010, 334 p. Translation of Cyberspace…

Siberuzayda macera dolu bir yolculuk. Sanal bir ontoloji ve antropolojiye doğru

Siberuzayda macera dolu bir yolculuk. Sanal bir ontoloji ve antropolojiye doğru

Jos de Mul. Siberuzayda macera dolu bir yolculuk. Sanal bir ontoloji ve antropolojiye doğru. Istanbul: Kitap Yayinevi, 2008, 400 p. Turkish…

The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility

The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility

Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens and Jos de Mul, The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility. Heinrich…

Horizons of Hermeneutics

Horizons of Hermeneutics

Jos de Mul. Horizons of Hermeneutics: Intercultural Hermeneutics in a Globalizing World.  Frontiers of Philosophy in China. Vol. 6, No.…

The game of life

The game of life

Jos de Mul. The Game of Life: Narrative and Ludic Identity Formation in Computer Games.  In: Lori Way (ed.), Representations of…

The Tragedy of Finitude. Dilthey's Hermeneutics of Life

The Tragedy of Finitude. Dilthey's Hermeneutics of Life

Jos de Mul. The Tragedy of Finitude. Dilthey's Hermeneutics of Life. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010 (second edition - eBook), 424…

Plessner's Philosophical Anthropology. Perspectives and Prospects

Plessner's Philosophical Anthropology. Perspectives and Prospects

Jos de Mul. ( ed.), Plessner's Philosophical Anthropology. Perspectives and Prospects. Amsterdam/Chicago: Amsterdam University Press/Chicago University Press, 2014. Helmut Plessner (1892–1985)…

Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog it's too dark to read.

Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog it's too dark to read.

Marxism according to Groucho     "Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog…

Noble versus Dawkins. DNA Is not the program of the concert of life.

Noble versus Dawkins. DNA Is not the program of the concert of life.

Jos de Mul. Noble versus Dawkins. DNA Is not the program of the concert of life. Translation of Dutch review, published…

The game of life. Narrative and ludic identity formation in computer games

The game of life. Narrative and ludic identity formation in computer games

Jos de Mul. The game of life. Narrative and ludic identity formation in computer games. In: J. Goldstein and J. Raessens,Handbook…

序言 约斯·德·穆尔 In: Zha Changping. World Relational Aesthetics. A History of Ideas in Pioneering Contemporary Chinese Art

序言 约斯·德·穆尔 In: Zha Changping. World Relational Aesthetics. A History of Ideas in Pioneering Contemporary Chinese Art

序言 约斯·德·穆尔. In: Zha Changping. World Relational Aesthetics. A History of Ideas in Pioneering Contemporary Chinese Art. Volume One. Shanghai:…

The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Recombination

The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Recombination

Jos de Mul. The work of art in the age of digital recombination. In J. Raessens, M. Schäfer, M. v. d.…


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The Emergence of Practical Self-Understanding. Human Agency and Downward Causation in Plessner’s Philosophical Anthropology

Jos de Mul. The Emergence of Practical Self-Understanding. Human Agency and Downward Causation in Plessner’s Philosophical Anthropology. In: Human Studies, December 2018 (DOI: 10.1007/s10746-018-09483-2)

Abstract Helmuth Plessner’s Levels of Organic Life and the Human [Die Stufen des Organischen und der Mensch, 1928] is one of the founding texts of twentieth century philosophical anthropology (understood as philosophical reflection on the fundamental characteristics of the human lifeform). It is argued that Plessner’s work demonstrates the fundamental indispensability of the qualitative humanities vis-à-vis the naturalscientific study of man. Plessner’s non-reductionist, emergentist naturalism allots complementary roles to the causal and functional investigations of the life sciences and the phenomenological and hermeneutic interpretation of the phenomenon of life in its successive levels and stages. Within this context, human agency can be understood as a higher-order property of organic life, which act by the selective activation of lower-level psychophysical powers. Plessner’s three ‘anthropological laws’ are used to situate the notion of practical self-understanding in between two extremes: deterministic views that deny human freedom and responsibility and views that ascribe an unrealistic amount of autonomy to human beings.

Keywords Helmuth Plessner · Philosophical anthropology · Non-reductionist naturalism · Emergentism · Downward causation · Human agency · Practical selfunderstanding

Psychosis as an Evolutionary Adaptive Mechanism to Changing Environments

 Floortje Scheepers,  Jos de Mul,  Frits Boer and  Witte Hoogendijk. Psychosis as an evolutionary adaptive mechanism to changing environments. Frontiers of Psychiatry, Volume  9,  June 2018.

Background: From an evolutionary perspective it is remarkable that psychotic disorders, mostly occurring during fertile age and decreasing fecundity, maintain in the human population.

Aim: To argue the hypothesis that psychotic symptoms may not be viewed as an illness but as an adaptation phenomenon, which can become out of control due to different underlying brain vulnerabilities and external stressors, leading to social exclusion.

Methods: A literature study and analysis.

Results: Until now, biomedical research has not unravelld the definitive etiology of psychotic disorders. Findings are inconsistent and show non-specific brain anomalies and genetic variation with small effect sizes. However, compelling evidence was found for a relation between psychosis and stressful environmental factors, particularly those influencing social interaction. Psychotic symptoms may be explained as a natural defense mechanism or protective response to stressful environments. This is in line with the fact that psychotic symptoms most often develop during adolescence. In this phase of life, leaving the familiar, and safe home environment and building new social networks is one of the main tasks. This could cause symptoms of “hyperconsciousness” and calls on the capacity for social adaptation.

Conclusions: Psychotic symptoms may be considered as an evolutionary maintained phenomenon.Research investigating psychotic disorders may benefit from a focus on underlying general brain vulnerabilities or prevention of social exclusion, instead of psychotic symptoms.

Keywords: psychosis, evolution, adaptation, social exclusion, defense mechanism

Encyclopedias, hive minds and global brains. A cognitive evolutionary account of Wikipedia

Jos de Mul. Encyclopedias, hive minds and global brains A cognitive evolutionary account of Wikipedia. 立命館言語文化研究29巻3号. Ritsumeikan Studies in Language and Culture. Volume 29, no.3 (2018), 143-153.



Wikipedia, the crowd-sourced, hypermedial encyclopedia, available in more  than  290 languages and  consisting  of  no  less  than  40 million  lemmas,  is  often  hailed  as  a  successful  example  of  the ʻwisdom of  the  crowdsʼ.  However,  critics not only  point  at  the  lack  of  accuracy  and  reliability, uneven coverage of topics, and the poor quality of writing, but also at the under-representation of women and non-white ethnicities. Moreover, some critics regard Wikipedia as an example of the development of  a  hive  mind,  as  we  find  it  in  social insects, whose  ʻmindʼ rather than being a property of individuals is a ʻsocial phenomenonʼ, as it has to be located in the colony rather than in the individual bees. In this article an attempt is made to throw some light on this controversy by analyzing Wikipedia  from  the  perspective  of  the  cognitive  evolution  of  mankind.  Connecting  to Origins  of  the  Modern  Mind (1991) of neuropsychologist Merlin Donald, in which three stages in the cognitive evolution -  characterized by a  mimetic, an linguistic, and an external symbolic cognition  respectively  -  are  distinguished,  it  is  argued  that  the  development  of  the  internet,  and crowd-sourced  projects  like  Wikipedia  in  particular,  can be understood as a fourth, computer- mediated form of cognition. If we survey the cognitive evolution of hominids and the role played in this evolution by cultural and technical artefacts like writing, printing press, computers, and internet, we witness a process of increasing integration of individual minds. With outsourcing and virtualization  of  the  products  and  processes  of  thinking  to  external  memories,  and  the  fast development of implanted computer interfaces, we appear to be at the edge of the materialization of the  hive  mind  in a  ʻglobal brainʼ.  The article ends  with  some  speculative  predictions about the future of human cognition.

Keywords: encyclopedias, Wikipedia, wisdom of the crowds, cognitive evolution, hive mind, global brain

The Earth Garden. Going Back or Going Forward to Nature?

Jos de Mul. The Earth Garden: Going Back or Going Forward to Nature? Frontiers of Philosophy in China. Vol.12 (2017) 2: 237-248.

Abstract Against the background of a short meditation on the contrasting ways in which landscape has been represented and idealized in Eastern and Western painting traditions, the article will try to show, using some striking examples, that the development of landscape painting in the last two centuries reflects the changing relationship of humanity and nature, leading in both the East and in the West to either the expression of a nostalgic longing for nature to be back as it once was, or to a gloomy expression of the vanishing of nature amidst the modern, technological world. Connecting to both the concept of “harmony,” which is a key concept in Eastern aesthetics, and to some recent reflections in Western philosophy on the relationship of nature and technology, a post-nostalgic conception of nature and natural beauty is defended, in which nature and technology are no longer seen as opposing categories, but rather as poles that are intertwined in an ever-lasting process of co-evolution. It is argued that we should not so much strive to go “back to nature,” but rather to go “forward to nature” and establish a new harmony between human and non-human nature and technology. The article ends with some reflections on the role artists and aestheticians may play in this transformation.

Keywords environmental pollution, environmental aesthetics, philosophy of nature, comparative aesthetics, philosophy of technology

Athens, or the Fate of Europe

Jos de Mul. Athens, or the Fate of Europe. Journal of Philosophical Research. Special supplement: Selected Papers from the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy. 2015: 221–227.


ABSTRACT: In his essay ‘The Idea of Europe’ George Steiner claims that European culture derives from “a primordial duality, the twofold inheritance of Athens and Jerusalem”. For Steiner, the relationship between Greek rationalism and Jewish religion, which is at once conflictual and syncretic, has engaged the entire history of European philosophy, morality, and politics. However, given this definition, at present the United States of America seem to be more European that ‘the old Europe’ itself. Against Steiner, it will be argued that in order to fathom the distinctive characteristic of European culture, we have to take a third European tradition into account, which is inextricably bound up with Athens: the tradition of Greek tragedy. If we may call Europe a tragic continent, it is not only because its history is characterised by an abundance of real political tragedies, but also because it embodies, as an idea and an ideal, a tragic awareness of the fragility of human life. Instead of reducing the ‘idea of Europe’ to a financial and economic issue, Europe should remain faithful to this idea and ideal.


First of all I like to thank the organizers for their invitation to join this symposium on Art and Cultures. As a tribute to the magnificent city of Athens and its inhabitants, I will talk about the relationship between European culture and the art form that is inextricably tied to the city of Athens: Greek tragedy. The thesis I will defend is that European culture distinguishes itself from other world cultures, and in particular from North-American culture, with which it shares both its Christian and its scientific worldview, by its deeply tragic character. This claim, I will argue, is neither a pessimistic nor an optimistic one, because tragedy is beyond this simple dichotomy. If I claim that Europe is a tragic continent, I refer both to its grandeur and pitfalls.

My talk consists of two parts. First, in a critical discussion with George Steiner, I will address the question of the identity of European culture. In the second part I will relate this identity to Greek tragedy.

Human nature after Neo-Darwinism

Jos de Mul. Human nature after Neo-Darwinism. in: Eidos .A Journal for Philosophy of Culture.Special issue: Is the Category of Human Nature Still Relevant? Vol 1 (2017), 1: 5-17. 



In the course of the 20th century the so-called Modern Synthesis of Neo-Darwinism has become the dominant paradigm in modern biology. First, it is explained how and why Darwin’s broad definition of evolution, in which the environment plays an important role, was narrowed down by Neo-Darwinism to a radical gene-centric view.  Next, the paradigm shift taking place today in ‘postgenomic’ evolutionary biology and genetics is discussed. It is argued that this shift opens the way to a more humane conception of evolution, more in line with Darwin’s view. Finally, I will discuss some of the implications of this paradigm shift for human self-reflection, taking The Music of Life. Biology Beyond Genes of systems biologist Denis Noble as a starting point.


Neo-Darwinism, Dennis Noble, gene-centrism, postgenomics, agency, human self-reflection

NextNature. Sublime natural and technological landscapes

NextNature. Sublime natural and technological landscapes, in: Ritsumeikan Studies in Language and Culture.  Volume 26, no.3 (2014),  5-23.

The development of the representation of the landscape in Europe since the 14th century Renaissance can be understood as a mirror of the development of modern and postmodern Western culture as a whole. After sketching the development of landscape representation in modern and postmodern Europe, the article focuses on the theme of sublimity, which, at least since the era of Romanticism, has been inherent to the European experience and representation of the landscape, both in its successive natural and technological manifestation. Against this background, the paper also discusses some striking differences between the European and the Asian landscape.

Keywords : NextNature, Sublimity, Sublime landscapes, European landscape, Asian landscape, natural landscapes, technological landscapes

Downloadable (via PDF-link)

The possibility of an island. Michel Houellebecq's tragic humanism

Jos de Mul, The possibility of an island. Michel Houellebecq's tragic humanism. Journal of Aesthetics and Phenomenology, Vol. 1 (2014), Issue 1, pp. 91–110.


The Possibility of an Island: Michel Houellebecq’s Tragic Humanism1



Various authors, including Friedrich Nietzsche and George Steiner, have argued that the tragic worldview, as we find it expressed in Greek tragedy, has become an entirely incomprehensible phenomenon for (post)modern man. The claim defended in this article radically opposes this view. It is argued that tragedy can still teach us something today, and maybe even more so now than in the many intervening centuries that separate us from her days of glory in the fifth century bce. The tragic reveals itself once more in (post)modern society, and nowhere more clearly than in technology, the domain in which we believed the tragic had been domesticated or even eliminated. Referring to the tragic humanism in Michel Houellebecq’s novels The Elementary Particles and The Possibility of an Island it is argued that it is precisely in (post)modern (bio)technologies that we experience the rebirth of the tragic.

Keywords: tragedy, technology, humanism, transhumanism, Michel Houellebecq, Friedrich Nietzsche

ホモ・ルーデンス2.0 [Homo ludens 2.0]

ホモ・ルーデンス2.0 [Homo ludens 2.0] >, in: Ritsumeikan Studies in Language and Culture. Special issue "Homo ludens 2.0. International workshop with Prof. Jos de Mul".  Volume 26, no.1 (2014),  1-18

ジョス・デ・ムル1)/樫田祐一郎,雁木 聡,原 草平(訳)





序戯〔前戯 foreplay


この世界を幽霊が徘徊している―遊戯性という名の幽霊が。我々は今や,世界規模の「文化の遊戯化〔ludification〕」を目撃している。「遊戯的な〔ludic〕」という単語が,ヨーロッパやアメリカにおいて,遊び心に満ちた振る舞いや人工物を言い表すための語として定着した1960 年代以降,遊戯性はますます我々の文化における主流な特徴となってきている。この文脈でまず心に浮かぶのは,ひょっとするとコンピュータ・ゲームの途方も無い人気であるかもしれない。世界的な売り上げに関する限りでは,それらは既にハリウッド映画をも凌ぐほどになっているのだ。アメリカでの最近の研究によれば,8歳から18歳までの子供達は,一日に平均して90分はディスプレイ画面やコンピュータ,或いは携帯式のゲーム機(携帯電話も含む)でコンピュータ・ゲームに興じているとのことである2)。これは決して西洋に限った現象ではない。たとえば,韓国では全人口のおよそ3分の2が頻繁にオンラインゲームで遊んでおり,コンピュータ・ゲームは最も成長著しい産業の一つにして「韓国経済を駆動させる鍵」3)ともなっている。

Comprendere la natura. Dilthey, Plessner e la bioermeneutica

Jos de Mul, Comprendere la natura. Dilthey, Plessner e la bioermeneutica. Lo Sguardo - rivista di filosofia. Vol. 14, no.1 (2014), 117-134.

Abstract: In recent years, authors like Chebanov, Markŏs, and Ginev have attempted to implement hermeneutic categories in the domain of biology. Against this background, the author takes Dilthey’s scattered remarks on the notion of the organic and Plessner’s biophilosophy as his starting point for the development of a biohermeneutical theory of biological purposiveness, which aims at bridging the gulf between the natural and the human sciences. Whereas the natural and human sciences are closely connected with a third-person and a first-person perspective respectively, the author argues that the second-person perspective plays a crucial role in the life sciences. In opposition to the natural sciences, in which causality is the key notion, and the human sciences, which rest on the notion of meaning, the author argues that the central concepts that characterize the second-person perspective of the life sciences are functionality and intentionality.

Nella Lebensphilosophie di Dilthey, l’antropologia e la storia sono strettamente connesse. Come lo stesso Dilthey afferma in una sentenza spesso citata, «Was der Mensch sei, sagt ihm nur seine Geschichte»[2]. Tuttavia, per Dilthey storia significa solamente storia culturale. Per sviluppare una comprensione adeguata della condizione storica dell’uomo, dovremmo prendere in considerazione però anche la storia naturale. Dopo tutto, in quanto unità psico-fisica, l’Homo sapiens sapiens è il prodotto storico di un’iterazione complessa tra sviluppi sia naturali che culturali. Inoltre, all’epoca delle scienze della vita, la storia naturale e quella culturale sembrano sempre di più sconfinare l’una nell’altra. Le biotecnologie quali l’ingegneria genetica, l’ingegneria metabolica e il trapianto di genoma trasformano gli organismi in artefatti culturali e nel tentativo di creare la vita artificiale (probabilmente il Santo Graal della biologia di sintesi), gli artifatti culturali manifestano via via maggiori qualità prima riservate alla vita organica.

In quanto segue argomenterò la tesi secondo cui l’ermeneutica di Dilthey, specialmente la sua analisi della triade Erleben, Ausdruck e Verstehen, offre ancora un proficuo punto di partenza per lo sviluppo di una bioermeneutica che non ha a che fare solamente con la comprensione umana e con l’interpretazione degli esseri, delle (inter)azioni e degli artifatti umani, ma che include anche la comprensione e l’interpretazione di e da parte di agenti non-umani. Il fatto che Dilthey nei suoi ultimi scritti ermeneutici distingua in maniera piuttosto dogmatica tra natura e cultura pare senza dubbio di primo acchito un ostacolo per lo sviluppo di una bioermeneutica ispirata al suo pensiero. Per esempio, Dilthey rifiuta esplicitamente la possibilità di una comprensione umana della vita delle piante: «Bedeutung oder Wert kann etwas nicht haben, von dem es kein Verstehen gibt. Ein Baum kann niemals Bedeutung haben» (GS VII, p. 259). La possibilità di una comprensione o di un’interpretazione da parte di agenti non umani non è poi nemmeno considerata da Dilthey. Eppure, sosterrò che gli scritti tardivi di Dilthey sull’ermeneutica contengono qualche traccia per lo sviluppo di una bioermeneutica. Svilupperò oltre queste tracce con l’aiuto della biofilosofia di Plessner e grazie a qualche riferimento ad alcuni recenti sviluppi negli ambiti della biologia dei sistemi e della neuropsicologia[3].

Innanzitutto, riprendendo il dibattito sulla demarcazione delle Naturwissenschaften e delle Geisteswissenschaften che ebbe luogo in Germania attorno al 1900, avanzerò la tesi secondo cui in quel dibattito erano in gioco varie dicotomie ontologiche, epistemologiche, fenomenologiche e normative che non combaciano. Dirò poi che queste dicotomie precludono una comprensione adeguata del carattere peculiare delle scienze della vita, a metà strada tra le scienze della natura e quelle umane (§ 1). Mostrerò in secondo luogo che Dilthey, nonostante il suo approccio per lo più dicotomico nel dibattito su tale demarcazione, a sua volta fondato sulla distinzione tra esperienza esteriore (prospettiva alla terza persona) e interiore (prospettiva alla prima persona), in qualche occasione ha riconosciuto lo statuto speciale delle scienze della vita, connesso con la «conformità di scopo (Zweckmäßigkeit)» immanente delle entità viventi (§ 2). In terzo luogo, dirò che la comprensione del finalismo immanente richiede l’esperienza da una prospettiva alla seconda persona, incarnata e interattiva (§ 3). Al fine di sostenere tale ipotesi, farò riferimento all’analisi di Plessner della triplice dimensione corporale della vita umana in Die Stufen des Organischen und der Mensch (§ 4). Nell’ultima parte, fornirò una breve visione d’insieme dei differenti tipi di interpretazione intraspecie, interspecie e intraorganica e traccerò i compiti che attendono la bioermeneutica (§ 5).


约斯·德·穆尔:《从开放设计到元设计——3D打印数据库本体的冲击》,《社会科学战线》2014年第10期。[Jos de Mul, From open design to metadesign. Social Science Front, no.10, 2014, 248-254]

国外社会科学从开放设计到元设计(metadesign)  ——3D打印数据库本体的冲击


(伊拉斯谟大学哲学系,荷兰鹿特丹 3062PA)



3D打印作为一项备受关注的技术,其令人咋舌的功能在医疗、工业、生活领域内引起的巨大变革已经使我们不得不持续对其关注和思考。3D 技术在法律、监管、社会、政治以及经济模型创新等方面都已经有了不同理论维度的探讨。在这篇文章里,我将不同于以往的讨论,从另外一个角度——设计,特别是开放设计(open design)的角度来讨论3D打印的问题。

在Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing[1]这本书中,Lipson和Kurman认为“3D技术是我们设计和制作东西的方式的一场革命”,因为它把一个物体的软件设计和它的实物显示(physical manifestation)之间的关系变得异常紧密。[2]尽管我认为在信息与通讯技术(ICT)世界里,当说起革命一词,我们应该多少有所怀疑,但是,很明显,3D技术在很多领域都有前途,而且,因其开放的特点(至少在一些方面是)而对传统设计实践提出了挑战。

接下来,我将讨论数据库本体(database ontology)的蕴意,这种数据库本体表征着我们当今设计界。我将要强调,为了发展开放设计的积极一面而不落陷阱,设计者不应该轻易放弃作为设计者的活动,而且更应该重新设计这些活动。未来的设计者不得不成为一个数据设计者,一个元设计者,他们不是设计一种客体对象,而是设计一个空间,在这个空间里,没有技巧的使用者可以通过使用者友好界面(user-friendly)设计自己的东西。

3D打印可以看作设计界的一个发展,它使设计行为的重新定义成为必要。2010年阿姆斯特丹重新定义设计大会[3]的宣传词中对开放设计的状况描述道:“设计工业正在经历着根本性的改变。开放设计、可下载的设计和分散的设计使得设计工业民主化,也意味着任何人都可以成为设计者和制造者。”这则消息的潜在意思似乎是说,开放设计,本质上是好的,我们应该发展它。(为了简略,我用open design 这个词来总括之前提到的那些设计界的发展,包括了可下载的、分散的设计以及重组模块使设计变得个性化,并用3D在家里或街角的专业商店打印出来)。尽管我对开放设计(或者任你管它叫什么)总体上持积极的态度,但是我认为还是应该注意这进程中的困难和陷阱,以避免我们会犯那种将孩子和洗澡水一起泼出去的错误。


正像“开放运动”(open movement)的其他成员一样,开放设计在很大程度上与个人电脑和互联网紧密相关(我们将会看到,开放运动包括多个运动,比如开放软件资源、开放科学、开放科技等。特别是开放生物学运动,是开放运动中一个很有意思的例子)。由于这个原因,为了能够对开放设计的机遇和陷阱都看得更清楚,我们应该研究一下数字领域(digital domain)的基本特点。因此,在论文第二部分,我会简要描述数据库本体,它是计算机的基础(ABCD of computing),也是数字领域的基础。



The biotechnological sublime. From nature to technology and back

Jos de Mul. The biotechnological sublime. From nature to technology and back. Princeton Institute for Advanced Study. The Institute Letter. Spring 2013, 17.

Many things are awesome, but none more awesome than man.


Every once in a while we experience something extraordinary. Such ‘awesome’ experiences might happen in our research, when we unexpectedly discover something really amazing, or when we come across a magnificent landscape, hear a piece of music that really moves us, or when we fall deeply in love. Traditionally these kinds of extraordinary experiences are called “sublime”. In the following I will present some reflections on one particular kind of sublimity: the technological sublime.

The (Bio)Technological Sublime

Jos de Mul. The biotechnological sublime. In: Ken-ichi Sasaki (ed.), Aesthetics beyond Art. Special issue of Diogenes,  Vol. 59 ( 1–2), 2013 32–40.

Abstract  The notion of the sublime, which since the nineteenth century is one of the dominant aesthetic categories, is strongly connected with (the artistic representation of) overwhelming nature. In this article it is argued that in the course of the 20th century the sublime increasingly becomes entangled with the experience of technology. However, in the age of biotechnologies, such as genetic modification and synthetic biology, the sublime regains a natural dimension. Taking Eduard Kac’s Alba fluo rabbit (a ‘transgenic’ bunny, that resulted from the injection of green fluorescent protein of a Pacific jellyfish into the egg of an Albino rabbit) as an example, it will be argued that in the age of biotechnology the difference between nature, technology and art will gradually vanish, and new dimensions of the sublime will become manifest.

约斯·德·穆尔 著《阐释学视界——全球化世界的文化间性阐释学》麦永雄 方頠玮 译 《外国美学》第20辑 (Hermeneutic perspective: Intercultural hermeneutics in a globalized world)

约斯·德·穆尔  著《阐释学视界——全球化世界的文化间性阐释学》麦永雄 方頠玮  译 《外国美学》第20辑 [Jos de Mul, Hermeneutic perspective: Intercultural hermeneutics in a globalized world. International Aesthetics, no. 20 (2012), 312-336]


约斯·德·穆尔  著 麦永雄 方頠玮   译

摘要:本文从 “经验视界”的常用隐喻出发,探讨文化间性阐释学(intercultural hermeneutics)的三种不同类型,它分别把阐释学的诠释构想成视界拓展,视界融合和视界播撒。可以认为,阐释学史上这些赓续的阶段分别源于——但并非是严格地限于——全球化的前现代、现代和后现代阶段。以中西语言和哲学相遇合的一些令人瞩目的契机为例,对文化间性阐释学这三种类型的优长和不足展开讨论。要论辩的是,尽管从理论的视野来看,这三种阐释学类型是互相排斥的,但是作为当代阐释的存在方式,我们有赖于这三种不同的阐释学实践,并且无法避免地与它们共生。


《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》(The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility)

约斯·德·穆尔,里斯贝思·努尔德格拉芙 :《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》《新华文摘》2012年第13期全文转载 [Jos de Mul andLiesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens, The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility),(originally published in Social Science Front no.4 2012), Xinhua Digest, no.14 2012]. 

《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》(The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility)

约斯·德·穆尔 里斯贝思·努尔德格拉芙 《主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择:论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任》《社会科学战线》2012年第4期 [Jos de Mul and Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens. The sovereign debt crisis or Sophie’s choice. On European tragedies, guilt and responsibility, Social Science Front, no.4 2012, 1-5]

主权债务危机还是苏菲的抉择: 论欧洲的悲剧、罪恶与责任

[荷] 约斯·德·穆尔 1  摇里斯贝思·努尔德格拉芙 2

(1作者简介: 约斯·德·穆尔( Jos de Mul), 荷兰伊拉斯谟大学哲学系教授, 研究方向: 哲学人类学; 里斯贝思·努尔德格拉芙(Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens), 伊拉斯谟大学经济系副教授, 研究方向: 哲学、经济学。郾伊拉斯谟大学哲学系, 荷兰鹿特丹3000 DR; 2郾伊拉斯谟大学经济学系, 荷兰鹿特丹3000 DR)

摇摇摘要: 2011 年, 针对金融危机, 欧洲峰会叠起, 但效果不佳。 我们应该开始在金融领域之外进行深入 思考。 文章将以希腊神话中俄狄浦斯的故事及《苏菲的选择》 为例, 阐释悲剧的意义, 从而透视欧洲危机 的深层问题。 解决欧洲危机的关键在于唤起人的责任感。 新自由主义弊端开始在欧洲显现, 当前, 迫切需 要将政治与经济联系起来, 在政治和文化的意义上定义欧洲, 而不是纠结于金融政策的改革。

关键词: 欧洲; 主权债务危机; 悲剧; 责任
中图分类号: G02摇文献标识码: A摇文章编号: 0257-0246 (2012) 04-0229-05

Le sublime (bio)technologique

Jos de Mul. Le sublime (bio)technologique. Diogène. No.233-234 (2011), 25-37.

Le sublime (bio)technologique 

Si le concept de sublime a été employé par le passé pour exprimer l'impuissance ressentie par l'homme dans ses tentatives de représentation de la Nature, la condition postmoderne – d'où la Nature même a été évincée – a donné lieu à une notion du sublime au sein de laquelle les êtres humains se retrouvent confrontés à leurs propres créations.

Dale Chapman.


Depuis son émergence en tant que discipline distincte dans le champ de la philosophie, au milieu du XVIIIe siècle1, l'histoire de l'esthétique manifeste deux tendances remarquables qui reflètent plusieurs développements spécifiques propres à l'art et à la culture (post)modernes en général. D'un côté, le développement de l'esthé- tique se caractérise par une spéciation remarquable ainsi que par la multiplication des catégories esthétiques. Si l'esthétique des premiers temps se concentrait essentiellement sur la catégorie du beau, une multitude de nouveaux concepts esthétiques, tels que le sublime, l'ironique, le comique, l'absurde et le banal, a émergé au début du XIXe siècle et s'impose encore aujourd'hui. Il est évident que cette expansion reflète les développements propres à l'art mo- derne lui-même qui n'a cessé d'élargir le champ de l'expérience et de l'expression esthétiques. Les beaux-arts sont devenus les arts qui ne sont plus beaux.

Tragedy and repetition

Tragedy and repetition. XPONIKA AIΣΘHTIKHΣ / Annales d'esthetique / Annals for Aesthetics, Vol.46. Volume B (2011), 191-202.

Abstract  According to writers such as Nietzsche, Steiner, and Oudemans and Lardinois the tragic culture of the Greeks has become entirely alien to us. They argue that within the Christian and modern worldview there is no place for tragedy anymore. In this article it is claimed that this does not entail in any shape or form that tragic events cannot take place anymore within Christian and modern culture. In modern culture this particularly happens, with no lack of tragic irony, precisely in the domain in which we believed tragedy had been eliminated: (our interaction with) technology.

Although technological tragedies differ in many respects from classical tragedies, they also show deep continuities. Just as in the case of their classical models, the behavior of the tragic heroes of our time is characterized by miscalculation (hamartia), blindness (atè) with regard to the tragic reality and foolhardiness (hybris).Now, tragic events do not automatically raise tragic awareness. Tragedies are characterized by the fact that the tragic heroes – unlike the spectators – are unaware of the fate that is befalling them, and coming about because of them. But most tragedies also have a reversal of circumstances (peripéteia), a moment at which hopeful expectation crumbles and the hero suddenly becomes aware of his tragic position. Postmodernity is another way of saying that modern culture recognizes itself as tragic.

Horizons of Hermeneutics

Jos de Mul. Horizons of Hermeneutics: Intercultural Hermeneutics in a Globalizing World.  Frontiers of Philosophy in China. Vol. 6, No. 4 (2011), 628-655.

DOI: 10.1007/s11466-011-0159-x (DOI) 10.1007/s11466-011-0159-x

Abstract  Starting from the often-used metaphor of the “horizon of experience” this article discusses three different types of intercultural hermeneutics, which respectively conceive hermeneutic interpretation as a widening of horizons, a fusion of horizons, and a dissemination of horizons. It is argued that these subsequent stages in the history of hermeneutics have their origin in—but are not fully restricted to—respectively premodern, modern and postmodern stages of globalization. Taking some striking moments of the encounter between Western and Chinese language and philosophy as example, the particular merits and flaws of these three types of hermeneutics are being discussed. The claim defended is that although these different types of hermeneutics are mutually exclusive from a theoretical point of view, as interpreting beings in the current era we depend on each of these distinct hermeneutic practices and cannot avoid living on them simultaneously.

Keywords intercultural hermeneutics, globalization, horizon of interpretation, premodernism, modernism, postmodernism

Etiketten plakken op de golven van de zee: Frederik van Eeden als vitalist

Jos de Mul. Etiketten plakken op de golven van de zee: Frederik van Eeden als vitalist. Frederik van Eeden-Genootschap. Mededelingen LV. Maart 2011, 6-19.



Laat ik mijn voordracht beginnen met het uitspreken van enkele woorden van dank en vrees. Laat ik met de dank beginnen. Het is mij een grote eer vandaag de jaarlijkse rede voor het illustere Frederik van Eeden-Genootschap te mogen uitspreken. Vooral gezien het feit dat we dit jaar, morgen om precies te zijn, de 150ste geboortedag van Frederik van Eeden vieren. Het is mij tevens een groot genoegen, omdat Frederik van Eeden ook een van mijn grote literaire jeugdliefdes is geweest en een belangrijke stempel heeft gedrukt op mijn persoonlijke ontwikkeling gedurende mijn middelbare schooljaren, en die jaren behoren – zeker als het gaat om de artistieke, politieke en filosofische voorkeuren die men ontwikkelt – tot de belangrijkste in een mensenleven.

Moral machines

Jos de Mul. Moral machines. In: Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology. Volume 14, no. 3 (2010), 226-237.

In spite of the popularity of computer ethics, ICTs appear to undermine our moral autonomy in several ways. This article focuses on the 'delegation' of our moral agency to machines. Three stages of delegation are distinguished: implementation of moral values and norms in the design of artefacts, delegation of moral means to machines, and delegation of both moral means and goals to machines. Second, it is argued that the 'outsourcing' of moral agency does not necessarily lead to the undermining of our moral autonomy, but might enhance it as well.

Keywords: ICTs, moral autonomy, man-machine interaction, moral mediation

约·德·穆尔《数据库建筑:对可能性艺术的人类学考察》Database Architecture: Anthropological Reflections on the Art of the Possible.

Jos de Mul. 约·德·穆尔《数据库建筑:对可能性艺术的人类学考察》雷礼锡译,载《襄樊学院学报》 第31卷第4期,2010年4月,第10—21页。[Jos de Mul, Database Architecture: Anthropological Reflections on the Art of the Possible. Journal od Xiangfan University, Vol. 31 (2010), no. 4, 10-21].



(1 伊拉斯谟斯大学哲学系,荷兰鹿特丹 3000; 2 襄樊学院美术学院,湖北襄樊 441053)

摘 要:康斯坦特·纽文惠斯的“新巴比伦”作为一种富有远见的建筑设计方案在赛博空间理论方面有重要发现,成为当今重组城市化与数据库建筑的典型案例。数据库建筑概念不只是一种信息论的体现,更重要的还是代表了一种面向未来的智能环境建筑理念。数据库建筑借助计算机辅助设计手段,意味着建筑发展趋向无限可能的艺术形式,并促成完全虚拟的建筑设计和建造,可能让人们居住在赛博空间,居住在完全由信息构造的建筑物里。人在本性上的有限、自由、游戏、无家可归成为重审“新巴比伦”、正视数据库建筑的重要基础。

约斯·德·穆尔 , 激进浪漫主义 (Radical romanticism)

Jos de Mul. 约斯·德·穆尔 , 激进浪漫主义 (Radical romanticism), in: 社会科学战线 (Social Science Front). 年第3期 (Issue 3, 2010), 第227-231页.

摘要:  在很多人看来 , 浪漫主义应当作为一个批判对象而存在 , 因为在本质上它是一种反启蒙 , 对扎 根于启蒙运动的现代性和民主文化构成了永久的威胁 。 文章认为 , 那些通常被归罪于浪漫主义的恶行事实 上并不是根源于过度的浪漫主义 , 而是由于浪漫主义的欠缺才发生的 , 浪漫主义并不追求绝对 , 它已经意识到绝对是一个不可企及的目标 。 也正是由于浪漫主义对待绝对的这种态度 , 使它成为介于现代性与后现代性之间的一种立场 。 如果说现代性以追求绝对的热情为特征 , 而后现代性以对这种追求的反讽为特征 ,那么 , 浪漫主义就构成了现代性的热情和后现代性的反讽之间的一种 “ 震荡 冶, 它对于保持二者之间的平衡是至关重要的 。 技术崇高( technological sublime ) 是现代性的合理结果 , 它的效应对于人类而言是喜忧参半的 。 在技术崇高咄咄逼人的现时代 , 艺术虽然不足以拯救我们 , 但是它可以使力得到舒缓 。 关键词:  激进浪漫主义 ; 艺术 ; 崇高 中图分类号: B835摇 文献标识码: A摇 文章编号: 0257-0246 ( 2010 ) 03-0227-05

Database Architecture: Anthropological Reflections on the Art of the Possible

Jos de Mul. Database Architecture: Anthropological Reflections on the Art of the Possible. The Journal of Asian Arts & Aesthetics. Vol.3, no.2 (2009), 1-14.

Abstract: In 1956, the Dutch artist Constant Nieuwenhuys started working on a visionary  architectural proposal for a future global society; he didn't stop for almost twenty years. New Babylon was elaborated in an endless series of models, sketches, etchings, lithographs, collages, architectural drawings, and photo collages, as well as in manifestos, essays, lectures, and films. New Babylon envisages a global society of total automation in which the need to work is replaced with a nomadic life of creative play, in which traditional architecture has disintegrated along with the social institutions that it propped up. Unlike most other representatives of the counter culture of the 1950s and 1960s Constant fully embraced technological progress: "Technology is the indispensable tool for realizing an experimental collectivism. To seek to dominate nature without the help of technique is pure fiction, as is collective creation without the appropriate means of communication. A renewed, reinvented audiovisual media is an indispensable aid. In a fluctuating community, without a fixed base, contacts can only be maintained by intensive telecommunications" (Constant, 1974).

However, it is not only because of the use of "intensive telecommunications" and computers that New Babylon prefigures the world of cyberspace. It is also, and more profoundly, the flexible database-like structure of New Babylon. The dynamic, endless recombination of architectonical elements that characterize New Babylon expresses the database ontology that rules our present world. It will be argued that "database architecture" of New Babylon foreshadows the ambiguous qualities of "recombinant global urbanism."

Key words: Architecture, Database, Ontology, Constant, Recombinant Urbanism

数据库美学与全球化世界 [Database Aesthetics and Globalizing Worlds]

约斯·德·穆尔, 数据库美学与全球化世界,雷礼锡译,载范明华主编:《美学与艺术研究》,第2辑,武汉:武汉大学出版社,2010: 421-424  [Jos de Mul, Database aesthetics and globalizing worlds, in Research on Art and Aesthetics, Vol. 2 (edited by Fan Minghua). Wuhan University Press, 2010,  421-424]


约斯·德·穆尔1 撰      雷礼锡2

(1伊拉斯谟大学 哲学系 荷兰 鹿特丹;2 襄樊学院 美术学院 湖北 襄樊 441053)




Des machines morales

 Jos de Mul. Des machines morales. Cités (Dossier: Internet et la société de contrôle : le piège), no. 39 (2009), 27-38.

Des machines morales

Du fait de sa programmabilité, l’ordinateur est souvent qualifié de machine universelle. Si la machine classique est la représentation d’un programme unique et spécifique, l’ordinateur est un mécanisme qui représente physiquement n’importe quel programme installé comme une procédure d’exploitation parmi d’autres possibles. En raison de cette versatilité et de cette flexibilité fondamentales, l’ordinateur peut être utilisé d’innombrables manières, y compris dans le domaine de l’action morale. Il est impossible de donner ne serait-ce qu’une vue d’ensemble de ces possibilités. C’est pour cette raison que je me contenterai d’étudier ce que je considère comme les trois types fondamentaux de délégation du jugement moral et de l’action aux ordinateurs. Ces trois types fondamentaux sont présentés dans un ordre qui vise à montrer la diminution progressive de l’autonomie morale de l’homme et l’accroissement constant de l’autonomie morale des ordinateurs.

Zeitenwende. Wie die digitale Revolution unsere Wahrnehmung von Geschichte verändert

Jos de Mul. Zeitenwende. Wie die digitale Revolution unsere Wahrnehmung von Geschichte verändert. Kulturaustausch. Zeitschrift für internationale Perspektiven. 59. Jahrgang, no. 3 (2009), 76

Der Computer ist eine Zeitmaschine. Er verwandelt unsere Wahrnehmung und er verändert unser Verständnis von Zeit. Mehr noch: Er untergräbt unser historisches Bewusstsein. Die digitale Welt revolutioniert unsere Zeiterfahrung.

In der westlichen Kultur ist das aus dem Altertum stammende zyklische Geschichtsverständnis unter Einfluss der christlichen Heilsgeschichte zunehmend der Überzeugung gewichen, dass sich Geschichte in einer unumkehrbaren, geradlinigen Bewegung vollzieht. Dieses historische Bewusstsein, das seinen Ursprung im 19. Jahrhundert hat, begreift die Wirklichkeit nur in ihrer chronologischen Entwicklung. In den Geisteswissenschaften interpretierte man Sprache, Moral oder Kunst aus ihrer Geschichte heraus. 

Denken aan de Maas

Jos de Mul. Denken aan de Maas. (Inleiding tot themanummer "Wijsbegeerte in Rotterdam").Tijdschrift voor Filosofie, nr. 71 (2009) 5-9.

Toen ondergetekende, na wijsbegeerte te hebben gestudeerd in Utrecht en  Amsterdam en promotieonderzoek te hebben verricht in Nijmegen, in 1988 als universitair docent wijsbegeerte aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (EUR) werd benoemd, behoorde de in 1973 gestichte Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte tot de jongste en - met een instroom van krap twintig studenten - kleinste filosofische faculteiten van Nederland. Ook met betrekking tot het onderzoek werd er door de ‘grote zussen’ soms wat meewarig naar de jonge telg gekeken. Twintig jaar later is de Rotterdamse faculteit wijsbegeerte uitgegroeid tot een van de grootste en – volgens de meest recente visitatierapporten Onderwijs (2003) en Onderzoek (2005) - beste van Nederland. De jaarlijkse instroom van nieuwe studenten is gestegen tot honderdveertig en de faculteit is reeds geruime tijd opvallend succesvol in het verwerven van onderzoeksubsidies, met name bij NWO. De onderzoekers publiceren in prestigieuze, op vakgenoten gerichte tijdschriften en boekseries, maar zijn ook opvallend present in culturele tijdschriften en dag- en weekbladen en op het internet, radio en tv.

The Tragedy of Finitude. Dilthey's Hermeneutics of Life

Jos de Mul. The Tragedy of Finitude. Dilthey's Hermeneutics of Life. Analecta Hermeneutica, Vol. 1, no. 1 (2009), 248-251.

The publication of substantial parts of Wilhelm Dilthey’s philosophical legacy in volumes 17 (1977), 19 (1982), 20 (1990), 21 (1997), and 23 (2000) of his Gesammelte Schriften necessitates a thorough reinterpretation of his entire philosophy. The Tragedy of Finitude. Dilthey''s Hermeneutics of Life aims to contribute to such a reinterpretation by reconstructing the ontological foundation of Dilthey’s hermeneutics of life.

[荷兰]约斯·德·穆尔:《数字化操控时代的艺术作品 (The work of art in the age of digital recombination)

Jos de Mul. [荷兰]约斯·德·穆尔:《数字化操控时代的艺术作品》,吕和应译,《学术研究》(广州),2008年第10期,第132-140页 (The work of art in the age of digital recombination", translated by Lü Heying, Academic Research Journal (Guang Zhou), 2008, No.10, p. 132-140.

约斯·德·穆尔 (荷兰 鹿特丹 伊拉斯谟大学,国际美学会主席)
吕和应 译 (复旦大学历史系 200433)

1. 导论


De Homo erectus à Homo zapiens : le Cyber espace pour les Darwinistes

Jos de Mul. De Homo erectus à Homo zapiens : le Cyber espace pour les Darwinistes. Sens [public] 7-8: L’Internet, entre savoirs, espaces publics et monopoles. (Septembre 2008), 127-144.

Europe – the tragic continent

Jos de Mul. Europe - the tragic continent. Michigan Paper Series. International Institute, University of Michigan, 2008.

Jos de Mul

Two weeks ago, in his lecture in this series on Europe, Neal Ascherson asked two intriguing questions: ‘Where is Europe?’, and ‘When is Europe’. Intriguing because it turned out that these seemingly simply questions are very hard to answer. Today I want to add a third question, as simple as the other two and as difficult to answer. This question is: Whatis Europe? In a sense, we may regard this third question as the primordial one, as we can start our search for Europe in time and space only when we at least have a slight idea of whatwe are actually looking for. So the question I want to address this afternoon is: what is it that makes Europe European? And as the title of my talk already indicates, the answer I will defend today is that Europe first and foremost is a tragic continent.

Onzingeving. Moedwil en misverstand in Hermans' Wittgenstein-interpretatie

Jos de Mul. Onzingeving. Moedwil en misverstand in Hermans' Wittgenstein-interpretatie. De Gids (Mei 2008), 451-459.

Van de doden niets dan goeds. Voor de filosoof W.F. Hermans maak ik graag een uitzondering. Kan de kwaliteit van Hermans’ literaire werk moeilijk worden overschat, zijn verdiensten als lezer, interpreet en vertaler van filosofische werken worden naar mijn mening door zijn bewonderaars schromelijk overschat. Op filosofisch terrein slaat hij de bal vaak en hartstochtelijk mis. Ik zal deze stelling staven door een korte beschouwing over Hermans’ door moedwil en misverstand gekenmerkte lectuur van Wittgenstein. Ik zal voorts betogen dat deze smalle, door het neo-positivisme geïnspireerde interpretatie van Wittgenstein Hermans weliswaar heeft geïnspireerd tot een aantal literaire meesterwerken, maar dat deze de auteur tevens, en onvermijdelijk, aanzette tot de verloochening van de betekenis van de literatuur, en daarmee van zijn eigen levenswerk. Ten slotte zal ik laten zien dat deze verloochening een belangrijke bron vormt voor Hermans’ literaire zelfhaat. 

约斯·德·穆尔,“禅宗与电脑维护的艺术”,《东方丛刊》2008年第1期,总第63期 (Zen and the Art of Computer Maintenance)

Jos de Mul. 约斯·德·穆尔,“禅宗与电脑维护的艺术”,《东方丛刊》2008年第1期,总第63期 (Zen and the Art of Computer Maintenance. Dongfang Congkan, Vol. 63 , 2008 No. 1).

Echo's van een laatste God

Jos de Mul. Echo's van een laatste God. Filosofie & praktijk Jrg. 28. nr. 1 (2007): 16-24.

Verheven onder de waterspiegel

Jos de Mul. Verheven onder de waterspiegel. In: Subliem Zeeland. Zeeuws tijdschrift (1-2).

The Tragedy of Finitude (Books in summary)

Jos de Mul. The Tragedy of Finitude (Books in summary). History and Theory, Vol. 45 (February 2006), 148-149.

Résonances de la mort de Dieu, après les fins de l'art

Jos de Mul. Résonances de la mort de Dieu, après les fins de l'art. In: Figures de l'Art. Revue d'Études Esthétiques, no. X: "L'esthétique, aujourd'hui?" , Ed. Bernard Lafarque (2006), 265-277.

Svršeci umjetnosti (The End of Art)

Jos de Mul. Svršeci umjetnosti (The End of Art). ODJEK - Revija za umjetnost, nauku i društvena pitanja (ODJEK - Journal for Art, Science and Social Issues), no. 1, 2006, 30-46.

De onbarmhartige Kunneman. Meervoudig onbegrip

Jos de Mul. De onbarmhartige Kunneman. Meervoudig onbegrip. Krisis. Tijdschrift voor actuele filosofie 2006, Jrg.7, nr.3, 74-79.
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